Failure to acquire the pre requisites therefore, jeopardizes acquisition of subsequent ones (Borich & Tombari, 1995). Teacher-made test 15. l986; Okebukola, 1985; Jegede & lnyang, 1991) show that the researchers have been more interested in finding the level of acquisition of science process skills or identifying the process skills (that is, the high order or integrated science process skills, identifying variables, operationally defining, identify testable hypothesis, experimentally designing and graphic analysis of data) in a particular curriculum material and classifying them to various hierarchical levels. Would student’s scores in basic science prognostic tests (basic four and basic seven) correlate with basic science achievement test scores of basic four (basic science and technology curriculum) and basic seven (basic science and curriculum) at the end of the year? It will also reduce frustration of the teachers who are expected to accomplish that task of making such deficient child achieve what they lack as skills or knowledge. But effective testing services are being hampered by a dearth of tests developed with the Nigerian students as the focus (Ipaye, 1995). The instrument will be useful in the identification of students with special science disabilities and in the measurement of progress in the course of remedial work. It tests your imagination. At the same time students are passed from lower basic to middle basic and from middle basic (senior primary) to upper basic using continuous assessment scores from teacher made tests. Readiness therefore, becomes a factor in any learning, which involves acquisition of sequential skills, (Horton et al. The government for instance, builds and equips science laboratories, produces special science books, organizes seminars and provides in-service training for science teachers and many others. Instead of being experimental (and go on expeditions to study nature) it is rather book-based. Are the basic science prognostic tests reliable measures of degree of readiness to study basic science? The study produced fifteen group norms each for the primary and for the secondary schools that can be used for comparism of standards and for guidance purposes. Reports from studies indicate that students perceive science as dull, abstract and theoretical. The same occurs as they go up the classes. The population composed of fall the primary 4 pupils (basic 4) and J.S.S.1 (basic 7) entrants. This ends up with students becoming bored and developing aversion to science. Again, here lies the need for this study, to produce an instrument that assesses readiness for basic science at this foundationa1evel with greater economy in terms of cost, skills and administrative time. source: field work. How valid are the basic science prognostic tests in measuring the objectives of the basic science? Accomplishment test 10. A study of the data on table 1 indicate that those who scored excellent and those who failed when compared is to poor. He further pointed out that another cause of ineffective learning of science is the short comings of science curricula and text books, which often lead to rote learning and give no real understanding of concepts. Anastasi and Urbina (2005) observed that at present, schools are among the largest test users. This site uses cookies. That is, those that have attained the prerequisites (knowledge and basic skills) needed for the next stage of a much more demanding work. Educational measurement, assessment and evaluation ... Achievement test 5. The purpose of formative assessments in the general education classroom is to determine whether a particular curriculum is effective as well as whether the teaching practices of … It will also offer a test with good degree of reliability and validity, which are factors of concern in developing country such as Nigeria. A number of tests have been designed to determine students’ readiness for learning school tasks. This has the advantage of providing diagnostic as well as predictive information. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of these articles, the reader will be able to: 1. The use of these instruments in education is still relatively recent as the terms only entered pedagogical parlance in 1967. Thorndike & Hagen (1991) assert that prognostic tests are a group of aptitude tests designed to predict readiness to learn or probable degree of success in some specific subjects or segments of education. Information and testing services are two important services to provide comprehensive information on the student to enhance rational decision by and about him (Shertzer and Stone, l980). Prognostic Biomarkers Overview . Therefore, the problem of this study posed as a question as suggested by Kelinger (1981) and Ali (2006) is: How possible is it to develop basic science prognostic tests whose psychometric properties of validity, reliability and objectivity are high for finding out the readiness of entrants from lower basic to middle basic and from middle basic to upper basic to study basic science? To do this, some estimate of students’ ability in science and other subjects is necessary in determining learning readiness, in individualizing instruction, in organizing classroom groups, in identifying underachievers, outstanding slow or fast learners, in diagnosing learning problems, in placing students in special classes, and in assisting students with their educational and vocational plans. The teaching-learning process involves continuous and interrelated series of instructional decisions concerning ways to enhance student learning. Impact of leadership on organisational performance, Influence of Marriage on the Academic Performance of Female Students in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria, Role of media in conflicts management and resolution, THE SOCIOLINGUISTICS OF SLANG AMONG STUDENTS OF UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, NIGERIA. Diagnostic testing in education is a measurement tool given annually to assess where a child is progressing or lacking in their academic goals. They consist of five states namely, Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu and Imo States. Table 1: JSCE Abia State 2003 – 2009 (Examination Development Centre,                                Umuahia, Abia State). This study was carried out in the south East Geopolitical Zone in Nigeria. Nor-reference test20. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Another term for a diagnostic test in education is a formative assessment or evaluation. Any comprehensive study of science achievement should start with prognostic test first to ascertain students’ readiness. The proposed use of the prognostic test should serve as the framework for a systematic review and to help define the key questions. Due to the importance of science the federal government of Nigeria adopted education as an instrument per excellence for effecting national development (NPE, 2004). The conclusions drawn were that the BASPTS instruments incorporated the prerequisite skills for attaining the objectives of the basic science in Nigeria. Diagnostic tests for reading provide specific information about reading skills. It is also an instrument or systematic … Prognostic definition is - something that foretells : portent. This implies that without a suitable instrument, the value of the quality under investigation cannot be adequately assessed. Yet all those scores include the continuous assessment scores which were arbitrarily assigned and inflated (Hasssan & Adeyanju, 1998; Adejuno & Afolabi, 1990). Scale test 11. 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The prognostic test will give the school as accurate as indication as possible the child’s ability to progress in basic science. When language or other method of communication of the learning does not make clear what is required the child will find it difficult to understand. Prognostic tests of an analytic type were used in preference to the more usual miniature or complex type, since (1) they are more suitable for children of the age of 1 I + to whom any resulting battery might be administered, and (2) a subsidiary aim of the experiment was to find out what psychological factors entered into the ability. Prognostic markers (biomarkers) are characteristics that help to … Moreover, this study is significant because it will fill the gap created by lack of well constructed and high psychometric instrument designed with focus on the Nigerian basic science and technology curricular. Many school children entering the Upper basic (Basic 7) from various primary schools who may not have been exposed to basic science and technology curriculum or do not have equal experience (or pre-requisite skills) are grouped together and placed in the same class -for instruction. The high school prognostic tests cover elementary, intermediate, and advanced high school … These call for the need for students to study science effectively, learn it properly, understand the concepts, and have a solid foundation in science. Speed test 12. Describe the use of multigene classifiers in the practice of breast cancer identification and prognosis. Determine the psychometric properties of the basic science prognostic tests. Education. Standardize test 19. In another study Khatiri, Riley and Kanel (1997), Roseigrio and Crowky (2001) studied students attitudes and background characteristics (sex, location and home environment) as a factor to the study of science and found them to have effect on achievement. For this reason, there is need for evaluation instruments, that will be accurate, relevant and comprehensive, that will provide quality evaluation information on which sound conclusion or plan for action about the student will be based. Most education tests measure students' status with respect to a cognitive skill or body of knowledge, which we can refer to as assessed attributes. Prognostic markers suggest, for a group of individuals, the odds that their disease will be slow moving (indolent) or more rapid and aggressive. The middle basic entrants (basic 4) were more ready to study basic science than basic 7 entrants. CEO Compensation and America's Growing Economic Divide. This article outlines the most commonly used breast cancer prognostic tests, including the individual assay’s purpose, its genomic … Determine the influence of gender on readiness of students to study basic science. One of the most potent instruments of change through which government hopes to. The federal government therefore, has at various times made efforts to initiate, organize, sustain and promote science. Prognostic tests at high school level are especially useful in decisions concerning course selection and instruction. However, Onwuka & Mozube (1992) developed a test on integrated science process skills for senior secondary students. With so many benefits to this kind of risk assessment, one may wonder why that is the case. Four instruments were developed. Thus, the basic science prognostic test will also have diagnostic potentials. The U.S. Supreme Court: Who Are the Nine Justices on the Bench Today? The federal government also made it compulsory that at senior secondary school, a student must do one core science subject (Biology, Physics or chemistry). This test does not require any educational qualification. Prognostic tests therefore are a unique tool for teachers and school officials in determining students’ ability to progress in science. Expectancy table was produced that could be used to calculate a student expected probability on the instruments. At the same time they frequently resemble achievement tests in content, because what they undertake to predict is usually performance in a specific course of study. Prognostic tests however, have not seen widespread adoption in developing countries like India. Prognostic test 6. This instrument will help schools that have enough staff and can afford remedial programme in classifying and placement of their deficient students. The question may require you to imagine a given drawing rotated at some angle or visualize a 2-dimensional drawing in a 3-dimensional view. Determine the influence of school location on the readiness of students to study basic science. From the study it was found out that gender was not significant in the primary school but in junior secondary it was significant predictor of readiness to study science. The latter usually provide detailed check … Furthermore, the need for making guidance developmental, starting as early in school life as possible and continuing progressively through it, highlights the importance of relevant educational tests in enhancing accumulation of information for the guidance of the student. A proficiency test is one that measures a candidate's overall … Though it is important to understand the differences in meaning between predictive and prognostic, it is true that a select few tests can provide both predictive and prognostic value. The basic science prognostic test will provide such information. do this is science education. It therefore provides information the teacher can use in assembling working groups within the class, in deciding upon the amount and type of activities to provide. Performance test 7. This therefore calls for study for enhancement of performance in science assessment of readiness. Some of these cookies are essential to the operation of the site, while others help to improve your experience by providing insights into how the site is being used. these show poor achievement. A prognostic biomarker is a clinical or biological characteristic that provides information on the likely patient health outcome (e.g. A critical analysis of the use of financial statement in assessing the performance of organization a study of Guarantee Trust Bank. In all, it ensures sustainable development (Diallo, 2004). School type/ownership of school showed that private schools were by far better achievers in science and about 60% of them enter the higher basic ready for the basic science programme while about 48% of the public schools were found ready of the basic science programme. A public school is one owned and directly maintained by a government, usually through its agency charged with the management and supervision of education. Linn & Gronlund (1995) point out that at the elementary level, reading readiness are most familiar but recently new type of early school readiness and achievement tests have appeared. Ausbel’s learning theory emphasized that meaningful learning occurs when new concepts are linked to familiar concepts existing in the Learners’ cognitive structure (Horton et all, 1993). Predictive markers predict, for a group, which therapies are likely to have good deep, responses. Today experts agree that the need for science and technology education is greater than ever to make sense of today’s world. In the classroom, these teachers are faced with student who frequently have more skills in information and communication technology than they have, even though their understanding of the physical principles may be totally lacking. We must make a distinction here between proficiency tests, achievement tests, diagnostic tests and prognostic tests. There is also the problem of using teacher-made achievement tests which has no psychometric properties, are unstandardized and cannot give effective information needed to understand the learners better. A private school is one not so owned or maintained. As such they cannot predict future performance. Fafunwa (1976) Osumah (2002) and Enyi (2003) found out that the use of mother tongue (Yoruba) instead of English language as a medium of instruction improved science achievement whereas lack of proper understanding of the language of study hindered effective study of science. 1993, Jouassan et al, 1999). A school test ing pr ogram should include measure ment of achievement, aptitude, personality and interest. Two of the instruments, the BASPT1 and BASPT2 were used to find out how the students background characteristics (gender, school type/ ownership of school attended and school location) affected their readiness to study basic science. This will enable them acquire the basic skills and bring about inventions. The various factors that contribute to student success on assessments make it problematic to assign either failure or success solely to the efforts of the classroom teacher, which means that there is a tension between administration and educators (as well as between politicians and the educational establishment) about the value of diagnostic assessment and whether curriculum should prepare students specifically for their end-of-year diagnostic assessments. 2. Such is the situation when teachers set their sight instructionally continually where many of their students will lag one developmental level behind the target or when students are consistently advanced into science concepts for which they do not possess pre-requisite (Floden, 1991). Readiness to study science may be influenced by students’ background factors such as location of the students (either urban or rural), ones sex, and type of school attended (whether public or privately owned school). Many biomarkers have both predictive and prognostic value. The students not yet prepared should be given remedial lessons, so that they will attain to the prerequisites to enable them progress in science. As entrants from lower basic to middle basic, and from middle basic enter into  upper basic (basic 7) or JSSI, the schools can use this prognostic test to separate students into different groups in a class to ensure that instructions are made relevant and engaging. 9, pp. Hearing loss and it’s implication on the academic performance of learner’s with hearing impairment. This implies that assessment of readiness should and need be undertaken at the beginning of any new science programme. Likewise, Anastasi and Urbina (2005) pointed out that tests are means of gathering data for making decisions about the individual or group. Nigeria. The BASPTS were cross validated. Ballman (2015) states that there ‘is conside… The study covered basic 1 – 7 (that is, primary 1 – 6 and junior secondary school, JSS 1). This prognostic test could be used for all selection tests (e.g. Invariably, it is assumed that these students have acquired the pre-requisite skills or have adequate prior knowledge of science for success in the upper basic (junior secondary) school programme. A Chi-square test for relationship showed a high significant relationship between the predictor and the criterion instruments-BASPT1 and BASAT1 had a coefficient of 0.72 and BASPT2 and BASAT2 had a coefficient of 0.79. Before writing a test it is vital to think about what it is you want to test and what its purpose is. Prognostic tests (also referred to as specialized aptitude tests) can be used to distinguish low achievers working up to their ability from those with potential for higher achievement. lt will provide information the teacher can use in assembling working groups within the class. Failure to take care of differences in learning abilities of students will bring about failure of many students and thus improper implementation of the curriculum (Paul, 2005: 318). The study produced instruments with high validity and reliability. On the other hand, a predictive biomarker indicates the likely benefit to the patient from the treatment, compared to their condition at baseline (Ruberg and Shen, 2015). O’Connor (2003) points out that the classroom approach to teaching science and mathematics is almost entirely authoritarian: lecturing, note-taking, and questions and answer sessions. Spatial Reasoning: It includes your ability to draw or interpret drawings. Orleans-Hanna Algebra prognostic Test (Hanna, Sonnenschein & Lenke, I 983). 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Little or no practical work is done. To the guidance counsellor, this instruments will provide some standard against which to determine the degree of readiness of a particular group of students for a given science programme or individual student for the purpose of counseling. Teaching can be most fruitful when it meets learners at whatever stage they happen to be. The following null hypotheses were tested for significance at the alpha 0.05. The Journal of Educational Research: Vol. Even teachers competence does not appear to guarantee students success because competent teachers may sometimes fail to carry some of their students along in teaching/learning process. the artificial tests devised by the U.S office or personnel, predict ability to learn a new language (Diane, Brogan, & McCauley, 1991) have offered evidence to show that their prognostic tests predict achievement in geometry and algebra, and ability to learn a new language respectively better than general measures of scholastic aptitude do. In another study, Newby (1991) investigated motivation in classroom as a factor for study of science pointed out that for the students to engage profitably in learning task he must be ready for it in a variety of ways. This study is deemed theoretically significant because it will produce instrument of known psychometric property that will facilitate learning and provide insight into Thorndike’s principle of learning in (Hurlock, 1981 and Borich & Tambori. School location is not a significant predictor of degree of readiness to study science, School type/ownership of school is not a significant predictor of degree of readiness to study science. From this perspective, this study also has research significance in as much it will produce an instrument that could be used in further research to seek the type of evidence Thorndike and Hagen have called for. Prognostic Tests and Teaching Success. What are the degrees of readiness to study basic science at class levels of basic four and basic seven? Standardized prognostic test in basic science is very relevant and highly needed to determine students’ readiness to progress in basic science since the students are passed from one level to another through continuous assessment (NPE, 2004:16). In contrast to achievement tests, diagnostic tests are designed to analyze individual performance and identify special disabilities. Oncology nurses play an important role in assisting patients in their understanding of and decision making regarding the use of prognostic tests in treatment planning. Such tests are designed to pinpoint at what grade level children are reading based on their mastery of phonics, blending, word recognition and text comprehension. The result of such assessment will prepare the teacher, guidance counselor and student for the next task ahead by reflecting on them the extent to which the student has acquired prerequisites essential for that task, his prospect in the new task and the type of adjustment he might need to reduce negative effect of moving into a new programme for which he is not adequately prepared. 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The teacher assume they are equally exposed and advance them continually into science concepts for which they do not posses pre-requisite skills or adequate relevant knowledge and are not ready or prepared for. By giving prognostic test at the beginning of the school year, educators can take constructive steps to fill the major gaps in knowledge revealed by test results (Anastasi & Urbina, 2005). The BASPT1 and BASPT1 are predictor instruments were correlated with the BASAT1 and BASAT2­ the criterion instruments and were found to be highly correlated. The proportion of students choosing 2 or 3 core science subjects in the senior secondary is very small compared to those choosing the arts and social science subjects (All, 1996). The location factors indicate that the urban located schools performed better than the rural located schools. All these point to poor achievement in science. 38, No. The teachers therefore, require a carefully collected evaluation data that will help them understand the learners better and aid the teachers in making more intelligent worthwhile educational decisions. Some diagnostic tests determine if a student qualifies for special education services on the basis of everything from dyslexia to speech delays or even attention deficit disorder while others indicate specific competencies on the scope and sequence for a course in which students have either demonstrated mastery or need remediation. Diagnostic test 8. Furthermore, the need for making guidance development, starting as early in school life as possible and continuing progressively through it; speaks of the importance of relevant test in enhancing accumulation of information for the guidance of the student. However, Thorndike & Hagen (1997) demand more evidence to show that use of prognostic tests would predict achievement more validly than a combination of measures of general intelligence and previous academic achievement in related areas will enough to justify their use and proliferation. BASPT1 has average validity coefficient of .62 while BASPT2 has average validity coefficient of .66. 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